TOXIC INHALATIONS

Can be liberated de novo or by combustion

Types

Asphyxiants - examples

Simple Chemical
CO2 CO
Inert gases - Ar, N2, He, H2 CN, HS, Methylene chloride
Methane/Ethane  

Pulmonary irritants - examples

Physical characteristics Examples
High water solubility Acetaldehyde, Formaldehyde, HF, HCl (burnt plastics), SO2, NH3
Intermediate solubility Cl2, Nitrogen oxides
Low water solubility Phosgene (paint remover, solvents), Ozone

Pulmonary irritants - site/type of injury

Depends on water solubility and particle size:

 
High Water solubility Low Water solubility
Site of injury Upper airway Lower airway
Type of injury Eye irritation
Laryngospasm, oedema, ulceration, haemorrhage
Bronchospasm
Alveolar injury
ARDS

Management

Disposition