Monthly Archives: July 2016


TweetDefinition Inadequate perfusion for metabolic requirements of body tissue Therefore can involve decreased circulatory function, excessive tissue metabolic activity or both. It is one of the key issues to address in… Read more »

Shock – A Practical Approach

TweetIntroduction The approach to shock should be systematic, focussed and efficient Establish there is sufficient evidence of hypoperfusion 2 or more of the following without sufficient alternative cause e.g. pain,… Read more »

Fluid responsiveness

TweetPathophysiology Body water is divided into several compartments –  circulatory, interstitial and intracellular Changes in circulatory volume can result in changes in haemo-dynamic parameters such as pulse rate and blood… Read more »

SIRS – Pathology

Tweet  Inflammation is a complex molecular and cellular event in response to various insults that results in cellular injury.  It has three important components Humoral response – involving various inflammatory… Read more »

Blast Injury

TweetIntroduction Commonly seen in military situations but also in terrorism incidents, industrial settings and some domestic incidents e.g. drug lab.  Types of injury can be multifactorial. Injury classification The numbering system… Read more »

Trauma – Definition

TweetDefinition I prefer the definition of trauma as ‘any tissue injury as a result of applied energy’ that includes other mechanisms beyond physical force, Mechanism Physical trauma (commonest) e.g. vehicular accidents, falls, assault… Read more »

Sepsis – Pathology

TweetPathophysiology Is a complication of any known infection that results in a systematic inflammatory response (SIRS) or organ dysfunction.  Its effects lie on a continuum of tissue injury.  The inflammatory… Read more »

Back pain – Assessment

Tweet Introduction This section refers to lumbar back pain rather than thoracic back pain Is a common primary care and emergency department presentation. The majority of causes are benign but… Read more »

Back Pain – Non-MSK causes

TweetPain referred to the back can arise from any of the retroperitoneal structures. A useful mnemonic for the anatomically-challenged is SAD PUCKER S: suprarenal (adrenal) gland A: aorta/IVC D: duodenum (second and third part)… Read more »