Whenever considering pathology of hollow viscera, there are only a few complications that can occur (even though their clinical manifestations may vary).
Hollow organs in the body range in size from salivary ducts to the GIT and major vessels.
Regardless of the anatomy, the two main pathological complications are obstruction or rupture.
Obstruction can be:
- Intra-luminal e.g. arterial thrombus, ureteric calculi
- Within the wall e.g. bronchial cancer
- Extra-luminal e.g. large goitre with tracheal compression
The features of obstruction depend on the secretory organ and contents
- Respiratory distress – Airways obstruction
- Ischaemia and pain – Vessel occlusion
- Distension and pain of secretory organ – Salivary duct stone
- Jaundice – Biliary obstruction
The complications of rupture depend on the contents of the viscus and cause
- Infection – GIT
- Shock – major vessels in thoraco-abdominal cavities
- Local compression and pain in closed compartments